I am a Software Engineer in Test (SET). Many people don’t know quite what that means, though. Developers frequently refer to me as a “tester” or “QA,” and a former director once thought I did DevOps. While my work covers these areas, they aren’t the main focus. Let’s clarify what it means to be a SET.
What is a Software Engineer in Test?
A “Software Engineer in Test” (SET) builds solutions to testing problems. Those problems could include slow feedback, flaky tests, costly runs, poor product quality, lack of communication during development, and more. In some circles, the role is called “Software Development Engineer in Test” (SDET).
Frequently, SETs focus on developing test automation solutions for running tests quickly and repeatedly. Test automation is a software product, after all. Just as front-end developers write web pages and back-end developers write microservices, SETs write automated tests. The same practices and coding skills apply. I frequently say that a Software Engineer in Test must have the heart of a developer.
However, a SET is more than just an automation engineer. SETs also look holistically at quality through the software development lifecycle. They build systems for fast feedback, such as Continuous Integration pipelines and reports. They work with developers and product owners to develop good product designs. They provide tools and frameworks to empower others to cover any testing needs. At times, they may also jump in to help a team with manual and exploratory testing.
So they just write test scripts?
No. Never say this to a SET. Test automation involves much more than just “writing test scripts.” A serious testing solution requires serious design and effort. The top-level automation of a test case is usually just a small piece. SETs are responsible for:
- Collaborating with developers and product owners
- Contributing to planning and design
- Reviewing product code
- Formulating test scenarios
- Developing test automation frameworks
- Automating test scenarios using the frameworks
- Knowing and using design patterns where appropriate
- Setting up the infrastructure to run tests
- Setting up dashboards for reporting test results in real time
- Teaching others good quality and testing practices
- Developing tools to assist manual and exploratory testing
Saying that testing is “just scripting” belittles the role of the SET and underestimates the workload it requires.
How did this role start?
Software “tester” and “QA” roles have existed for decades, but the SET role first became distinct in the 2000s when large-scale test automation became both feasible and necessary. According to Wikipedia, Microsoft coined the title “Software Developer Engineer in Test” (SDET) in 2005, and others like Amazon and Apple quickly adopted it. Google coined the name “Software Engineer in Test” for the same type of role. I personally prefer the SET title over the SDET title simply because it is more concise.
How is it different from “QA” or “testing” roles?
To me, the SET role is distinct from the traditional “QA” or “testing” role. Software testers historically focused on manual testing and thus didn’t need strong programming skills. Their fortes were product domain knowledge, intuition, out-of-the-box thinking, test planning, and test system setup. And these certainly are important, indispensable skills! SETs, however, live in both the development and testing worlds. They use developer skills to provide software solutions for testing problems. Automation is usually much more central to the SET role. Nevertheless, there will always be a need for manual testing because there are some problems a human can catch much more easily than a script (or an AI agent). A traditional tester will be responsible for doing test cases for a team, while a SET builds the solutions to empower other testers and developers to do the testing.
Personally, I avoid using the titles “QA” and “software tester” for myself because they don’t accurately describe all that I do. I also avoid the title “automation engineer” because, again, it is reductionist. I tackle software testing with the heart of a developer, and I set up test automation solutions from the ground up. I’m proud to be a software engineer who specializes in testing.
As a bonus, check out Test and Code episode 47, in which Brian Okken and I discuss what it means to be a Software Engineer in Test (among other topics).
Excellent description of the title and the role. An eye opener for many who overlook these positions. Thank you Andy.
True, a good eye opener ! Good job!
Hey Andy, I really enjoy this post. I was very disheartened when I was applying to a great SET job at Sonos and they were not sure what I meant by I am not interested in being a tester or just write scripts using python. I was very confused why they were confused about my statement; the position was SET!!
Great starting point for aspiring SETs. But what about practicle guideline or “learning path” for an SET in making . Any recomendation of yours?
Practice makes perfect. Work on different types of testing projects: unit, service API, Web UI, mobile, OS, load, performance, etc.
Also, take as many courses as you can from Test Automation University: https://testautomationu.applitools.com/.
great article. would it be fair to say that one of the differentiating factors between an SDET and a QA Automation Engineer is the former being someone who is capable of rolling up their sleeves and refactoring a legacy code base via unit tests to improve quality as well as guiding developers on writing testable code (i.e. leveraging Dependency Injection, etc)? I wouldn’t really expect a QA Automation Engineer to have those skills, though I do think QA Automation Engineers should be able to write unit and integration tests, not solely E2E tests…