BDD 101: Frameworks

Every major programming language has a BDD automation framework. Some even have multiple choices. Building upon the structural basics from the previous post, this post provides a survey of the major frameworks available today. Since I cannot possibly cover every BDD framework in depth in this 101 series, my goal is to empower you, the reader, to pick the best framework for your needs. Each framework has support documentation online justifying its unique goodness and detailing how to use it, and I would prefer not to duplicate documentation. Use this post primarily as a reference.

Major Frameworks

Most BDD frameworks are Cucumber versions, JBehave derivatives inspired by Dan North, or non-Gherkin spec runners. Some put behavior scenarios into separate files, while others put them directly into the source code.

C# and Microsoft .NET

SpecFlow is arguably the most popular BDD framework for Microsoft .NET languages. Its tagline is “Cucumber for .NET” – thus fully compliant with Gherkin. The basic package is free and open source, but SpecFlow also sells licenses for SpecFlow+ extensions. The free version requires a unit test runner like MsTest, NUnit, or in order to run scenarios. This makes SpecFlow flexible but also feels jury-rigged and inelegant. The licensed version provides a slick runner named SpecFlow+ Runner (which is BDD-friendly) and a Microsoft Excel integration tool named SpecFlow+ Excel. Microsoft Visual Studio has extensions for SpecFlow to make development easier.

There are plenty of other BDD frameworks for C# and .NET, too. is an alternative that pairs nicely with A major difference of is that scenario steps are written directly in the code, instead of in separate text (feature) files. LightBDD bills itself as being more lightweight than other frameworks and basically does some tricks with partial classes to make the code more readable. NSpec is similar to RSpec and Mocha and uses lambda expressions heavily. Concordion offers some interesting ways to write specs, too. NBehave is a JBehave descendant, but the project appears to be dead without any updates since 2014.

Java and JVM Languages

The main Java rivalry is between Cucumber-JVM and JBehave. Cucumber-JVM is the official Cucumber version for Java and other JVM languages (Groovy, Scala, Clojure, etc.). It is fully compliant with Gherkin and generates beautiful reports. The Cucumber-JVM driver can be customized, as well. JBehave is one of the first and foremost BDD frameworks available. It was originally developed by Dan North, the “father of BDD.” However, JBehave is missing key Gherkin features like backgrounds, doc strings, and tags. It was also a pure-Java implementation before Cucumber-JVM existed. Both frameworks are widely used, have plugins for major IDEs, and distribute Maven packages. This popular but older article compares the two in slight favor of JBehave, but I think Cucumber-JVM is better, given its features and support.

Java also has a number of other BDD frameworks. JGiven uses a fluent API to spell out scenarios, and pretty HTML reports print the scenarios with the results. It is fairly clean and concise. Spock and JDave are spec frameworks, but JDave has been inactive for years. Scalatest for Scala also has spec-oriented features. Concordion also provides a Java implementation.


Almost all JavaScript BDD frameworks run on Node.js. Mocha is a general-purpose test framework that integrates English-y phrases into spec-like code. Jasmine is like Mocha but has less of a learning curve. Cucumber provides Cucumber.js for Gherkin-compliant happiness. Yadda is Gherkin-like but with a more flexible syntax. Vows provides a different way to approach behavior using more formalized phrase partitions for a unique form of reusability. Comparisons are posted here, here, here, and here. The Cucumber blog argues that Cucumber.js is best due to its focus on good communication through plain language steps, whereas other JavaScript BDD frameworks are more code-y.


The two major BDD frameworks for PHP are Behat and Codeception. Behat is the official Cucumber version for PHP, and as such is seen as the more “pure” BDD framework. Codeception is more programmer-focused and can handle other styles of testing. There are plenty of articles comparing the two – here, here, and here (although the last one seems out of date). Both seem like good choices, but Codeception seems more flexible.


Python has a plethora of test frameworks, and many are BDD. behave and lettuce are probably the two most popular players. Feature comparison is analogous to Cucumber-JVM versus JBehave, respectively: behave is fully Gherkin compliant, while lettuce lacks a few language elements. Both have plugins for major IDEs. radish is another framework that extends the Gherkin language to include scenario loops, scenario preconditions, and variables. All three put scenarios into separate feature files. They all also implement step definitions as functions instead of classes, which not only makes steps feel simpler and more independent, but also avoids unnecessary object construction.

Other Python frameworks exist as well. pyspecs is a spec-oriented framework. pytest-bdd adds some Gherkin features to the popular pytest library. Freshen was a BDD plugin for Nose, but both Freshen and Nose are discontinued projects.


Cucumber, the gold standard for BDD frameworks, was first implemented in Ruby. Cucumber maintains the official Gherkin language standard, and all Cucumber versions are inspired by the original Ruby version. Spinach bills itself as an enhancement to Cucumber by encapsulating steps better. RSpec is a spec-oriented framework that does not use Gherkin.

Which One is Best?

There is no right answer – the best BDD framework is the one that best fits your needs. However, there are a few points to consider when weighing your options:

  • What programming language should I use for test automation?
  • Is it a popular framework that many others use?
  • Is the framework actively supported?
  • Is the spec language compliant with Gherkin?
  • What type of testing will you do with the framework?
  • What are the limitations as compared to other frameworks?

Frameworks that separate scenario text from implementation code are best for shift-left testing. Frameworks that put scenario text directly into the source code are better for white box testing, but they may look confusing to less experienced programmers.

Personally, my favorites are Cucumber-JVM and behave. At my present job, I use SpecFlow and prefer it above the other .NET frameworks. I’d love to learn more about radish, and I’d love to try JGiven for unit tests. For skill transferability, I recommend Gherkin compliance, as well.

Reference Table

The table below categorizes BDD frameworks by language and type for quick reference. It also includes frameworks in languages not described above. Recommended frameworks are denoted with an asterisk (*). Inactive projects are denoted with an X (x).

Language Framework Type
C Catch In-line Spec
C++ Igloo In-line Spec
C# and .NET Concordion
NBehave x
SpecFlow *
In-line Spec
In-line Gherkin
Separated semi-Gherkin
In-line Spec
Separated Gherkin
In-line Gherkin
Golang Ginkgo In-line Spec
Java and JVM Cucumber-JVM *
JDave x
JGiven *
Separated Gherkin
Separated semi-Gherkin
In-line Spec
In-line Gherkin
In-line Spec
In-line Spec
JavaScript Cucumber.js *
Separated Gherkin
In-line Spec
In-line Spec
In-line Spec
Separated semi-Gherkin
Perl Test::BDD::Cucumber Separated Gherkin
PHP Behat
Codeception *
Separated Gherkin
Separated or In-line
Python behave *
freshen x
radish *
Separated Gherkin
Separated Gherkin
Separated semi-Gherkin
In-line Spec
Separated semi-Gherkin
Separated Gherkin-plus
Ruby Cucumber *
Separated Gherkin
In-line Spec
Separated Gherkin
Swift / Objective C Quick In-line Spec


BDD 101: Automation

Better automation is one of BDD’s hallmark benefits. In fact, the main goal of BDD could be summarized as rapidly turning conceptualized behavior into automatically tested behavior. While the process and the Gherkin are universal, the underlying automation could be built using one of many frameworks.

This post explains how BDD automation frameworks work. It focuses on the general structure of the typical framework – it is not a tutorial on how to use any specific framework. However, I wrote short examples for each piece using Python’s behave framework, since learning is easier with examples. I chose to use Python here simply for its conciseness.

Framework Parts

Every BDD automation framework has five major pieces:

#1: Feature Files

Gherkin feature files are very much part of the automation. They act like test scripts – each scenario is essentially a test case. Previous posts covered Gherkin in depth.

Here is an example feature file named google_search.feature:

Feature: Google Searching
  As a web surfer, I want to search Google, so that I can learn new things.
  # This scenario should look familiar
  @automated @google-search @panda
  Scenario: Simple Google search
    Given a web browser is on the Google page
    When the search phrase "panda" is entered
    Then results for "panda" are shown

#2: Step Definitions

step definition is a code block that implements the logic to execute a step. It is typically a method or function with the English-y step phrase as an annotation. Step definitions can take in arguments, doc strings, and step tables. They may also make assertions to pass or fail a scenario. In most frameworks, data can be passed between steps using some sort of context object. When a scenario is executed, the driver matches each scenario step phrase to its step definition. (Most frameworks use regular expressions for phrase matching.) Thus, every step in a feature file needs a step definition.

The step definitions would be written in a Python source file like this:

from behave import *

@given('a web browser is on the Google page')
def step_impl(context):

@when('the search phrase "{phrase}" is entered')
def step_impl(context, phrase):

@then('the results for "{phrase}" are shown')
def step_impl(context, phrase):
  assert context.google_page.has_results(phrase)

#3: Hooks

Certain automation logic cannot be handled by step definitions. For example, scenarios may need special setup and cleanup operations. Most BDD frameworks provide hooks that can insert calls before or after Gherkin sections, typically filterable using tags. Hooks are similar in concept to aspect-oriented programming.

In behave, hooks are written in a Python source file named

import page_objects
from selenium import webdriver

def before_all(context):
  context.browser = webdriver.Chrome()

def before_scenario(context):
  context.google_page = page_objects.GooglePage(context.browser)

def after_all(context):

#4: Shared Code

Shared code (a.k.a libraries or packages) refers to any code called by step definitions and hooks. Shared code could be dependency packages downloaded using managers like Maven (Java), NuGet (.NET), or PyPI (Python). For example, Selenium is a well-known package for web browser automation. Shared code could also be components to assist automation, such as page objects or other design patterns. As the cliché goes, “Don’t reinvent the wheel.” Step definitions and hooks should not contain all of the logic for running the actions – they should reuse common code as much as possible.

A Python page object class from the module could look like this:

class GooglePage(object):
  """A page object for the Google home page"""
  def __init__(self, browser):
    self.browser = browser
  def load():
    # put code here
  def search(phrase):
    # put code here
  def has_results(phrase):
    # put code here
    return False

#5: Driver

Every automation framework has a driver that runs tests, and BDD frameworks are no different. The driver executes each scenario in a feature file independently. Whenever a failure happens, the driver reports the failure and aborts the scenario. Drivers typically have discovery mechanisms for selecting scenarios to run based on tag names or file paths.

The behave driver can be launched from the command line like this:

> behave --tags @panda

Automation Advantages

Even if a team does not apply behavior-driven practices to its full development process, BDD test frameworks still have some significant advantages over non-BDD test frameworks. First of all, steps make BDD automation very modular and thus reusable. Each step is an independent action, much like how each scenario is an independent behavior. Once a step definition is written, it may be reused by any number of scenarios. This is crucial, since most behaviors for a feature share common actions. And all steps are inherently self-documenting, since they are written in plain language. There is a natural connection between high-level behavior and low-level implementation.

Test execution also has advantages. Tags make it very easy to select tests to run, especially from the command line. Failures are very informative as well. The driver pinpoints precisely which step failed for which scenario. And since behaviors are isolated, a failure for one scenario is less likely to affect other test scenarios than would be the case for procedure-driven tests.

Available Frameworks

There are many BDD frameworks out there. The next post will introduce a few major frameworks for popular languages.