Speaking at conferences is a great way for tech professionals to meet others, share their stuff, and travel to new places. It’s hard but rewarding work for speakers. I’ve been fortunate to have many speaking opportunities in the past few years. However, there is a hot-button issue in the speakership world: the “pay-to-speak” controversy. I’d like to offer my perspective on the matter.
What is Pay-To-Speak?
Have you ever wondered how speaking at conferences works? Conference organizers announce a “call-for-proposals” several weeks before the conference date. Potential speakers submit their proposals for talks, which often include an elevator pitch, an outline with time estimates, and personal information. Organizers will then invite the speakers with the best proposals to the conference.
Now, here’s the big question: Who covers the speaker’s costs? Conference travel isn’t free. Speakers will need transportation, a hotel room, meals, and other incidentals. Many speakers will also need to take time off from their day jobs to attend the conference. Some conferences will generously pay for their speakers’ travel-related expenses, either through reimbursements or a stipend. However, others are “pay-to-speak,” for which conferences do not cover any speaker travel costs. Speakers must ask their employers to sponsor them or, in the worst case, pay out of pocket. (For clarity, pay-to-speak does not mean that a speaker must pay the conference a fee for the privilege of speaking, at least not that I have seen.)
The pay-to-speak model can cause serious problems:
It can devalue the hard work speakers do to deliver captivating talks. Speakers essentially work for someone else without getting paid. They take several hours away from regular work and family time.
It can cause tension between speakers and their employers. A speaker will probably ask their manager to give both time off and travel reimbursement. That can be a tough conversation. It might involve office politics. Not every employer is thrilled to send their people to expensive conferences.
It can put a financial burden on speakers. If an employer won’t cover costs, then the speaker must pay out of pocket, which could force the speaker to make hard sacrifices.
Less-privileged speakers may need to decline invitations because they cannot afford to pay the travel costs themselves. That’s tragic and unfair.
These are real problems. As a result, many popular speakers boycott pay-to-speak conferences. Some conferences proudly advertise that they are not pay-to-speak. I won’t copy any hot tweets here, but just follow the #PayToSpeak hashtag on Twitter to see some. There are some strong words out there.
An Alternative Perspective
Personally, I love conferences that can cover my travel costs when I’m a speaker. It certainly eases my financial burden. I also think that for-profit conferences should not only cover speaker travel costs but also pay speakers for their presentations. However, the pay-to-speak model is not inherently evil. There are situations for which pay-to-speak is, in my opinion, a good model for conferences. Look no further than the Python conferences.
Python is one of the world’s most popular programming languages right now. Python is unique among programming languages because it is developed and supported entirely by the community. It is free, open-source software. The Python core developers, the people who “make” the language, are all volunteers. The Python Software Foundation (PSF) is a non-profit organization that holds the intellectual rights to Python. Python does not have a company behind it like Java (Oracle), C# (Microsoft), Go (Google), or Swift (Apple). Companies certainly support Python development and events, and a few individuals are employed by such efforts, but Python is nevertheless an independent, not-for-profit endeavor.
The best way to engage the Python community is through Python conferences. The biggest one is PyCon, held annually at different locations in North America. There are several other PyCons throughout the world, and the United States has many “regional” Python conferences like PyOhio and PyGotham. I’ve attended quite a few in recent years.
All the Python conferences I know are pay-to-speak. However, they are also non-profit. There’s no company making money off the conferences. The organizers are volunteers. Everything is financed through ticket sales, corporate sponsorships, and donations. The PSF also gives support. PyCon’s very tagline is, “By the community, for the community.”
Furthermore, Python conferences deliberately seek to keep registration prices low so that the conferences can be accessible to as many people as possible. That means costs must be kept low. Any conference needs money to run – lots of money. Speaker travel is a huge financial cost for a conference. Do the math: if a conference has 50 speakers, and each speaker needs about $2,000 for travel expenses, then the total cost is about $100,000! That’s enough to make any volunteer organizer lose sleep. Choosing a pay-to-speak model helps keep costs low.
As a result, registration prices for Python conferences are very affordable. Below are individual rates for 2019 conferences:
PyCon 2019: $400
DjangoCon 2019: $595
PyColorado 2019: $125
PyGotham 2019: $150
PyOhio 2019: free
Alternatively, there are for-profit conferences that charge thousands of dollars for their tickets.
Many Python conferences also offer financial aid grants to speakers and attendees who need assistance covering travel and registration costs. If an accepted speaker cannot afford to come on their own, they can probably get assistance. Many Python conferences also stagger ticket costs between educational, individual, and corporate tiers so that individuals paying out of pocket have less burden that those whose companies cover their costs. Simply put, if you want to go to a Python conference near you, then cost should not be a barrier.
Personally, I have no problem with Python’s pay-to-speak conferences. When I speak at Python conferences, I treat it as my service to the community – much like how others contribute code to open-source projects. The Python community has given much more to me than I could pay back, so instead, I’m happy to pay it forward. And the ones who “profit” from Python conferences are ultimately the ones who attend.
The pay-to-speak controversy is a complex issue. No side offers a perfect solution. What’s right or wrong is not the pay-to-speak model itself but rather the intention behind the decision to be pay-to-speak. If a conference seeks to profit from a speaker’s labor, then the speaker should be paid as with any business transaction. However, if a conference is truly a non-profit endeavor with benevolent intentions and a genuine inclusion strategy, then pay-to-speak might be okay.
Web UI tests with Selenium WebDriver must interact with elements on a Web page. Locating elements can be tricky because expected elements may or may not be on the page. Furthermore, WebDriver might not be able to interact with some elements that exist on the page. That may seem crazy, but let’s understand why.
Web UI interactions universally follow these steps:
Wait for an element to be ready.
Get the element using a locator (ID, CSS selector, XPath, etc.).
Send commands (like clicking or typing) or queries (like getting text) to the element.
Clearly, an element must be “ready” before interactions can happen. As humans, we intuitively define “ready” as, “The page is loaded, and the element is visible.” Automation code is a bit more technical because there are two different ways to define readiness:
Existence: the element exists in the HTML structure of the page.
Appearance: the element exists and it is visible on the page.
Existence can easily be determined by WebDriver’s “find elements” method. The plural “find elements” method will return a list of all elements matching a locator query. If no elements match the locator, then an empty list is returned. The singular “find element” method, on the other hand, will return the first element matching the locator or throw an exception if no elements are found. Thus, the plural version is more convenient to use for checking existence.
Here’s an example existence method in C#:
public bool Exists(IWebDriver driver, By locator) =>
driver.FindElements(locator).Count > 0;
Checking for existence is the most basic level of readiness. If an element doesn’t exist, interactions with it simply cannot happen. However, existence alone may not be sufficient for interactions. Selenium WebDriver requires elements to not only exist but also to be displayed for interactions like sending clicks and scraping text. Existing elements may be scrolled out of view or even deliberately hidden. WebDriver calls to such elements will yield cryptic exceptions. That’s why waiting for appearance is usually the better readiness condition.
Here’s an example appearance method in C#:
// Assume that the locator targets one element, not multiple
public bool Appears(IWebDriver driver, By locator) =>
Exists(driver, locator) && driver.FindElement(locator).Displayed;
Existence must be checked first, or else the “Displayed” call will throw an exception whenever existence is false.
Putting it all together, here’s what a button click interaction could look like in C#:
// Assume this is a method in a Page Object class
// Assume that "Driver" is the WebDriver instance
public void ClickThatButton()
var button = By.Id("that-button");
var wait = new WebDriverWait(Driver, new System.Timespan(0, 0, 15));
wait.Until((driver) => Appears(driver, button));
It’s good practice to make explicit waits before locating and using elements. It’s also good practice to get fresh elements for every interaction call in order to avoid pesky stale element exceptions. Calls like these should be placed in Page Object methods or Screenplay Pattern tasks and questions so that interactions are safe and thorough.
Appearance may not always be the right choice. There may be times when a test should check if an element doesn’t exist or if an element exists but is hidden. Just think before you code.
My wife and I have been proud Airbnb hosts since 2018. We currently host three guest suites between two properties in North Carolina, and we love doing it. Airbnb enables us to take care of my wife’s mom and afford critical house renovations. Overall, hosting has been a worthwhile, albeit sometimes tiring, experience.
Between our three listings, we see many guests. We try to be “super” hosts to every guest who stays with us, and most of our guests likewise try to be super guests. However, nobody is perfect. While we believe that the vast majority of Airbnb users want to be good, not everyone may be cognizant of irksome or even damaging missteps. From our perspective as hosts, we’d like to share 12 ways for good guests to be truly great guests.
#1. Share information about yourself and your travel plans.
As hosts, we don’t know who you are. You are strangers who we meet online, and you want to stay at our house. We want to trust you, but help us! Don’t be shy. Update your Airbnb profile with your email, phone number, and information about yourself. Share your actual profile picture – not a picture of your kids or some dumb cartoon sketch. Upload a copy of your government ID. When you request to stay at our place, share why you are traveling. Tell us when you plan to arrive and leave, and tell us exactly who all the guests will be. Ask us for local recommendations.
The more you share about yourselves, the more likely we will be as hosts to accept your request to stay. Conversely, we have also rejected requests when guests don’t upload their IDs or when they aren’t forthright with information.
#2. Read (and follow) all house rules and guides.
When guests request to stay at a listing, they must agree to follow all house rules (in addition to Airbnb’s policies). House rules are attached to the listing and accessible before booking. Our house rules are pretty basic, but we frequently see the following violated:
No shoes inside.
Park on the street, not in the driveway.
Quiet hours after 10pm.
Breaking these rules is not a huge problem but unfortunately reveals guests to be careless and disrespectful. Read the rules before you book.
Similarly, read the guides before you check in. We provide a full step-by-step guide with pictures for each listing, including the entry codes. We also provide WiFi and Netflix information. Asking us for the combo code or trying to enter the wrong door reveals that guests did not prepare.
#3. No means no.
Hosts set rules for reasons. Guests should not expect exceptions. For example, we do not allow children under age 12 in any of our listings because they are not baby-proof or child-proof. We have fragile decorations, furniture with sharp edges, and outlets without safety covers. We also do not allow pets because I am allergic to animal dander. These rules are published clearly on our listings. Please do not request to stay with us if you intend to bring a child or a dog. Please do not ask for an exception because “he’s a good boy.” Or worse, don’t show up with a rule violation and put your host in an awkward situation. It’s okay to ask for things that are unclear or unspecified, but please be reasonable with requests, and do not be offended if the host says no.
#4. Include all guests in the booking.
Each listing has a maximum number of allowed guests. When guests book a listing, they must include how many people will come. Guests should list all people, but unfortunately that doesn’t always happen. It’s common for a guest to book for one person and then have more show up. This may or may not be a serious problem. For example, one of our suites can accommodate 3 people, but we charge extra per night because we need to turn a futon into a bed. We’ve had guests book it for one person and then have three show up – creating an awkward situation. We also had one problematic guest invite five or six others over without even asking. As a guest, just make sure to include all members of your party in the booking, and ask for permission before bringing over someone not in the booking.
#5. Cancel early (when necessary).
Cancellations are always disappointing for hosts, but we understand that plans change. If you as a guest need to cancel your reservation, then please cancel as soon as possible. Every day you hold a reservation is an opportunity cost for someone else to book. When a guest cancels late, the host loses the income and has little chance to find a replacement.
Furthermore, respect the host’s cancellation policy. Hosts choose one of Airbnb’s standard policies, so make sure to check the listing when you book. If you cancel too late and don’t get a full refund from Airbnb, then please don’t feel entitled to get a full refund directly from the host.
#6. Treat the space well.
As hosts, we put a lot of work into making our guest suites nice. We carefully choose the furniture and decor. We clean the suites thoroughly between stays and inspect them for any problems. And we tend to cycle through many guests in short time. Our guest suites need to “survive” day to day.
As guests, please take care of the spaces you rent. Be careful not to cause any damages. Clean up your messes. Wash your dishes. Hang up your towels. Don’t leave food out for bugs. Overall, just think about how you’d want a guest to treat your home.
#7. When in doubt, ask for permission.
Grace Hopper once said, “It is easier to ask forgiveness than it is to get permission.” However, this is terrible advice for Airbnb rentals! Guests should always ask their hosts whenever the rules or guides are unclear. My wife and I are fairly accommodating with most requests, such as late checkin or storing food in our fridge. We just don’t like surprises – like someone unexpectedly cooking during our family mealtimes.
#8. Don’t do sketchy things.
Airbnb stays are meant to be a fun, safe experience for both guests and hosts. There should be an implicit sense of trust between guest and host. Neither party should participate in illegal or discomforting activities. Drugs, sex work, and pornography are unwelcome – and not to mention a violation of Airbnb’s policies. If you are a guest, don’t do these things. My wife and I have kicked out guests for doing sketchy things.
Also, be clear and open about your intentions, especially if they are atypical. If you need to stay up late to work on a project, let your host know so they don’t wonder why your lights are on all night. If you need to bring large medical hardware, let your host know so they don’t think you’re “Breaking Bad.” If you want to use the listing for a family photo shoot, let your host know so they don’t suspect you of filming porn. Remember, you are staying in another person’s space. Please don’t make them worry.
#9. Be patient when problems happen.
Problems happen. Even though hosts work really hard to make things perfect, sometimes they overlook details, and other times things are out of their control. Our guest suites have had problems with temperature, hot water, burned-out light bulbs, and even bugs.
As guests, please be gracious with problems. Tell your host right away. Good hosts will want to fix the problems ASAP. Share pictures so your host can see exactly what is wrong. Be polite, not belligerent or whiny. Please be patient while the host works to fix the problems. And don’t wait until the final review to share a problem. By then, it’s too late. Guest shouldn’t suffer and hosts shouldn’t get bad reviews when problems can be fixed.
#10. Be honest when you cause problems.
Again, problems happen. Here’s a few we’ve seen:
Guests parked in the driveway and blocked our cars.
Guests tracked mud into the house.
Guests spilled coffee on the bedroom carpet.
Good hosts will focus on solutions rather than blame. As guests, please take responsibility for any problems you cause and help work toward solutions. Be quick to respond to your host, and be willing to pay the host for any damages. For example, the guest who spilled the coffee reimbursed us about $10 for carpet cleaner.
#11. Check out on time.
Good listings have high occupancy rates. All three of our suites are typically 75-100% occupied every month. Whenever a guest checks out, a new guest will probably check in later that same day. As hosts, we need to flip the space in that short window between checkout and checkin. That includes inspecting, vacuuming, cleaning, laundry, remaking the bed, and handling any surprises.
Please make sure to check out punctually. Tell your host ahead of time when you plan to check out, and send the host a message to let them know when you leave.
On a related note: the most common request from our guests is for an early checkin time. We try to accommodate early checkin for guests who ask, but we cannot make guarantees. An early checkin time depends directly upon the previous guests’ checkout time.
#12. Don’t leave poor reviews for poor reasons.
At the end of a stay, the host and the guest review each other. Reviews are kept private until either both parties submit them or 14 days pass. The bidirectional nature of reviews holds guests and hosts equally accountable to each other, which encourages better behavior from both sides.
I encourage everyone – guests and hosts alike – to give truthful, transparent reviews. A robust review system keeps the Airbnb platform trustworthy. At the same time, be mindful about what you write in your reviews. Hosts rely upon good reviews for income, and bad reviews – even 4 stars instead of 5 – can be especially damaging. If you leave a bad review, make sure it is for a good reason. Nothing is more frustrating than to see reviews like these:
A guest said everything during their weekend stay was absolutely perfect. They adored the location, the decor, and the coffee machine. They said they’d definitely come back. No negative comments. 4 stars instead of 5.
A guest gave 3 stars for accuracy because the guest suite didn’t have a private entry, even though the listing explicitly stated that there was no private entry.
A guest complained that one of the bedsheets was upside down and not tucked in perfectly.
Thankfully, off-the-mark reviews like these happen rarely. I’m sure some hosts are guilty as well. Please don’t give poor reviews for poor reasons.
There are many more things we could share, but the “golden rule” comes down to this: Be a good guest to every host, just as much as you want your host to be good to every guest. Even if your host is lousy, still strive to be a good guest for your integrity and the integrity of other Airbnb users.
When I was a kid, I was an enthusiastic Boy Scout. And every year, I looked forward to summer camp. For one full week, I would have a mini-adventure in the woods with my friends while earning new ranks and developing new skills. Summer camp was the highlight of every summer. As an adult, this is exactly how I feel about PyCon.
PyCon 2019 was my second time at PyCon. While I doubt any conference will ever have the same impact on me as my first PyCon, my second one was nevertheless every bit as good. I had a phenomenal experience. As always, I like to capture my reflections in an article so that I never forget the wonderful times I had. Here’s my story.
PyCon 2018 was a career-changing experience for me. I felt it at the time, and I can validate it now a year later. PyCon 2018 was my first serious engagement with the Python community. PyCon 2018 inspired me to speak at other conferences. PyCon 2018 introduced me to friends I still have today. As soon as PyCon 2018 ended, I knew that I needed to return for PyCon 2019.
Between 2018 and 2019, PrecisionLender (my employer) started doing much more Python work, especially in our data analytics division. I got approval from my manager to go to PyCon, but I also knew that others in the data division would benefit from PyCon as well. When I suggested the idea to the VP, he replied with one line: “Let’s do this thing!” With his blessing, I convinced four other PrecisionLender-ers to join me: Adam, Henry, Joe, and Raff.
I’m so thankful PrecisionLender approved our trips. Going with other friends from my company boosted not only my excitement for the conference but also my desire to learn new things. I’m proud to represent a company that supports its employees so well.
Good conferences are good but exhausting. They cram hundreds of adrenalized people into back-to-back activities requiring deep focus for hours at a time and for consecutive days. Amidst the mania, it is crucial to pace oneself. My friend Kojo sums this up perfectly in what he calls the “self care sprint.” It’s okay to step back to catch your breath. It’s vital to one’s mental health to take breaks, rest, and recover, especially at conferences as intense as PyCon.
Heeding Kojo’s advice, I took a #SelfCareSprint on the day before PyCon tutorials began. How so? I spent my afternoon at the Cleveland Museum of Art, which exhibits pieces from around the world dating from ancient times through the present day. Make no mistake: the Cleveland Museum of Art is world-class. In addition to their permanent collections, they had a special exhibit on Shinto artifacts from Japan. I barely had enough time to walk through all the galleries. What I did see impressed me, inspired me, and challenged me. Some pieces even spoke deeply to my soul.
The dichotomy of art and technology balance each other. Exploring pieces of art and the viewpoints they represent helped me center myself. I could clear my mind in preparation for the conference. I gained rest and recovery. I am human, after all.
PyCon 2019 hosted two days of tutorials before the main conference. Whereas talks are thirty minutes long and open to anyone, tutorials are three-hour sessions that require preregistration for limited seats. Tutorials are meant for hand-on learning with expert instructors. I had never attended tutorials at a conference before, and so this time, I wanted to try.
My first tutorial was Writing About Python (Even When You Hate Writing) by Thursday Bram. Since I do lots of blogging (and I ultimately want to write a book), I wanted to get first-hand advice on technical writing in the Python ecosystem. Thursday gave great advice on writing techniques and gotchas. The most valuable takeaway was her proofreading checklist. Her tutorial also inspired me to do something cool later in the conference. (Keep reading!)
My second tutorial was To trust or test? Automated testing of scientific projects with pytest. Unfortunately, this tutorial wasn’t right for me. I thought it would be about testing within data science, but it turned out to be a basic walkthrough of pytest. I didn’t learn any new material. What I did learn, though, was that I should be pickier with tutorials – I had to pay in advance, and I couldn’t just walk out to another talk.
My third tutorial was Escape from auto-manual testing with Hypothesis! by Zac Hatfield-Dodds. Hypothesis, a property-based testing tool, is hot right now. I first learned about it at the previous year’s PyCon, and I always wanted to learn more. Zac provided not only helpful lectures but a rigorous set of examples for us to complete. Hypothesis also works seamlessly with pytest. Zac made be a believer: Hypothesis is awesome! I need to spend more time learning it on my own.
As always, the talks were on point. I didn’t attend as many talks this year because I was too busy in the “hallway track,” but there were quite a few noteworthy ones that I attended.
In Don’t be a robot, build the bot, Mariatta showed how she and the Python core developers automated their GitHub workflow with the help of useful bots. It was cool to see how mundane processes can be automated away and how much more efficient teams can become.
In Break the Cycle: Three excellent Python tools to automate repetitive tasks, Thea Flowers showed how to use tox, nox, and Invoke to automate just about anything in Python. I’ll definitely refer back to this talk for testing.
In ¡Escuincla babosa!: Creating a telenovela script in three Python deep learning frameworks, Lorena Mesa showed us how serious machine learning can also be used for fun projects. Although the telenovela script she generated was short and humorous, it clearly proved that ML can get the job done.
In Scraping a Million Pokemon Battles: Distributed Systems By Example, Duy Nguyen showed how he scraped data from competitive Pokémon battles to level the playing field for new players. In the process, he developed a pretty slick distributed systems setup!
In Shipping your first Python package and automating future publishing, Chris Wilcox showed best practices on building and releasing Python packages. This talk was well-timed for me – I’ll definitely use this info for a current pet project of mine.
Dependency hell: a library author’s guide by Yanhui Li and Brian Quinlan will also be a great resource when considering dependencies for packages.
In to GIL or not to GIL: the Future of Multi-Core (C)Python, Eric Snow showed his thoughts for how to fix problems with the GIL and true multi-core processing.
In The Perils of Inheritance: Why We Should Prefer Composition, Ariel Ortiz made clear the nasty side effects inheritance can have and how composition is often a much better approach. The talk was fairly introductory, but I couldn’t agree more.
The expo hall was full of companies and organizations. The swankiest booths this year were:
Capital One – the Guido portrait and puzzle and the Zen of Python wall
Jetbrains – content developer tables for PyBites, Real Python, and others
Microsoft – four interactive Azure stations + active lab tables
However, my favorite company in the expo hall, hands down, was The Pokémon Company International. Their table was small and easily overlooked, but every time I passed by, it was packed. Everyone loves Pokémon! I got to meet a few of their engineers and managers. Apparently, they do much of their backend in Python. They’re also growing quite a lot. They were raffling off a giant Pikachu, and one of the engineers even developed a Google Home app that would make Pikachu respond whenever someone spoke to it! It was so charming to see them there. I’m glad that things are going well for Pokémon.
If you don’t overfill your swag bag, then you’re doing PyCon wrong. This year’s haul was as good as last year’s. I walked away with:
A deck of cards with the Zen of Python from Capital One
An artistic deck of playing cards from Heroku
16 packs of Pokémon cards
A JetBrains yo-yo
A few pairs of sunglasses
Water bottles from DoorDash, Wayfair, and Citadel
A guide to building Slack apps
The best t-shirt award goes to Microsoft for their Visual Studio Code shirt, with honorable mentions for LinkedIn and SmartBear. I also shared a good amount of this swag with my coworkers at PrecisionLender.
Cleveland (and greater Ohio) are renowned for craft breweries. Every time I return to Ohio, I’m always delighted by the beers I discover. I spent many lunches and dinners with a flight set on the side. Here’s where I went:
Hofbräuhaus Cleveland, twice! (I even bought the souvenir Maßkrug!)
Masthead Brewing Company
Noble Beast Brewing Company
Southern Tier Brewing Company
Great Lakes Brewing Company
The best was the Lichtenhainer from Noble Beast – a sour that tasted like a ham sandwich on sourdough. The worst was the “shampoo beer” from Southern Tier – did they forget to rinse the lines after cleaning them?
Back at PyCon 2018, I met an Aussie by the name of Julian Sequeira, co-founder of PyBites. We hit it off. In fact, meeting Julian is one of the reasons why I continue to engage the Python community today. Through Julian, I met other friends like Jason Wattier, Brian Okken, Cristian Medina, and many others. Leading up to PyCon 2019, Julian organized a BIG dinner at Great Lakes Brewing Company for a bunch of Python content developers: PyBites, Real Python, Python Bytes, Test & Code, tryexceptpass, and Automation Panda (me!). Not only was it a time of sweet reunion, but I finally got to meet others like Bob Belderbos, Michael Kennedy, and David Amos in person. One of the best parts of the dinner was when a few of us chose to walk back to the hotels over the bridge instead of calling taxis. The night was cold, but the experience was worth every second.
Sadly, I did not get to deliver a full talk or tutorial at PyCon 2019. Believe me, I submitted. But that didn’t stop me from trying – there’s always one more chance with lightning talks! One exercise during the Writing About Python tutorial was to pitch a lightning talk idea. At the time, I struggled to come up with a good topic. I first considered something about testing or being a tester, but those ideas just didn’t feel right. Then, I struck gold: what about giving helpful tips for blogging, based on my experiences with Automation Panda?
I put my idea on the call-for-lightning-talk-proposals on Saturday morning: “3 Quick Tips for Software Blogging.” When I didn’t receive any notification by lunchtime, I thought my pitch had been rejected. Then, while chilling in the quiet room at 3pm, I received an email: “Congrats! You’re giving your lightning talk today at 5pm!” Excitement, then panic, took over. I threw some slides together, rehearsed them in my head, and marched myself to the main auditorium. My lightning talk was second in queue, and I delivered it like a BOSS!
Ever since my first PyCon, I’ve dreamed about having a Python conference in the Carolinas. There was a PyCarolinas 2012 and a PyData Carolinas 2016, but both were one-hit wonders. My dream remained in my back pocket until PyCon 2019.
While meandering the expo hall on Friday, I ran into Tim Hopper and Brian Corbin, two friends who were also from the Carolinas. We talked about lots of things, but one point of discussion was about relaunching PyCarolinas. Later, Dustin Ingram, chair of PyTexas, tweeted that there would be a conference organizer’s open space on Saturday. I asked if I could join because of my PyCarolinas dreams, and he said absolutely yes. Brian and I both attended, made connections, and got tons of helpful information.
Dustin then asked me if I’d like to include a slide for PyCarolinas in the “regional conference parade” on Sunday morning after the lightning talks. Heck yeah! PyCarolinas was the very last slide as a call-to-action: We have a dream; come help us make it real!
At 10am on Sunday, I held an open space to talk about (re)launching PyCarolinas. 26 people came! We got everyone’s info, created a Slack room, and started throwing around ideas. In the week after the conference, over a hundred people signed up for our Slack room. The excitement is palpable. Our goal is to host PyCarolinas in summer of 2020 for 150+ people. I’m so thankful I got the opportunity to be the spark that lit this wildfire, on such a big stage.
Together with my blog, I use my Twitter handle @AutomationPanda for professional development. Twitter is especially helpful during conferences for communicating with friends and sharing experiences. During PyCon 2019, I crossed a big milestone: I hit over 1000 followers! That was cool.
I also made my first viral tweet, thanks to a sticker from Facebook:
If you read these reflections down this far, thank you. Seriously, I mean it.
The best part about PyCon 2019 for me was the time I spent with my friends.
PyCon 2019 was a high point for friendships. Everyone I knew was there. I couldn’t walk for 10 minutes around the convention center without running into someone I knew. I feel like I’m truly part of the Python community now. Here were just a few highlights:
Going there with my PL team: Adam, Henry, Joe, and Raff.
German dinner and souvenir Maßkrugs with Adam at Hofbräuhaus.
“Shampoo” beer with Joe and Adam at Southern Tier.
Snagging Pokémon cards on opening night with Mason Egger, and then running into Jason Wattier on the way.
Ramen dinner and Hilton rooftop drinks with the PL crew plus Mason.
Impromptu lunch with Adrienne so she could share the awesome things she’s accomplishing.
PyCon Canada 2018 was my fourth and final Python conference of 2018. I proposed a talk on a whim after seeing the CFP on Twitter. What the heck, why not? It couldn’t hurt to try. Much to my surprise (and delight), I was accepted to speak! So, up to the Great White North I went for the first time since childhood.
#PyConCA2018 took place in Toronto, Ontario from November 10-13 at the Chestnut Residence downtown. I attended the conference (Nov 10-11) but skipped out on the sprints (Nov 12-13). It looked like about 400-500 people attended the conference, but I don’t know the exact count. A few vendors had tables with swag, but the talks were clearly the main focus of the conference.
PyConCA offered three tracks for talks plus a tutorials track. There were two time slot lengths for talks: 10 minutes and 30 minutes. I had not attended a conference with short 10-minute talks before, but they turned out to be a great way to cover a broader range of topics in a short amount of time. The tutorials were long-running sessions for which anyone could register at no additional charge, but they each had a limited number of seats. (I regret not signing up in advance for the Kubernetes tutorial.) There were also four decent keynote addresses.
I spent a lot of time reworking the slides, writing new example code, and rehearsing my words before the talk. And I felt great when I presented it: without any script, I hit all the major points without skipping a beat and ended right on time. I felt my passion flow through me as I spoke. This tweet pretty much summed up my feelings:
Meeting people is one of my favorite parts of Python conferences. Everyone is friendly. Everyone will chat with you. Everyone will get excited about whatever makes you excited. This time around, I ended up in a posse with a few other guys who mostly attended the same talks and also sat at the same lunch table. I hope our paths cross again. I also got to meet Elaine Wong, the conference chair.
After the Conference
I was on my own for both evenings after the conference talks. My Airbnb rental was just two blocks away in Chinatown, so I could walk to and from the conference center (in the bitter Toronto cold). On Saturday night, I ate a delicious dry hotpot of beef, lotus flowers, and wood ear mushrooms at the House of Gourmet, followed by a fancy bubble tea in a light-bulb-shaped glass across the street at Royaltea. On Sunday night, I treated myself to foot-and-body massage at Evergreen Beauty and Wellness. My therapist, who was from Beijing, helped me practice my Mandarin. Thereafter, I went to Sichuanren for an all-you-can-eat hotpot buffet: beef, pork, lamb, seafood, and veggies. It’s so much fun to visit a big city with a large Chinatown – it provides access to things I can’t always get at home. That US-to-Canadian-dollar exchange rate is quite favorable, too. The only challenges I faced were (a) no mobile phone service and (b) worrying if establishments would accept my credit/debit cards. The temps also hovered around freezing.
PyConCA was a strong finish for my 2018 conferences. I’m so thankful for my opportunity to speak, and I’m glad that I took the time to attend.
My favorite physical takeaway items of swag were:
My PyConCA sticker, now proudly displayed on my Macbook
My PyConCA t-shirt, which will soon appear in my rotation
My PyConCA “toque” (Canadian word for “knit winter cap with a pom-pom on top”)
My main inspirational takeaway from this conference could be summed up in one word: confidence. I feel much more confident in myself as a conference speaker after nailing my talk this fourth time. After listening to a number of talks, I also feel much more confident in my Python web development skills. Picking up Flask (which is on my todo list) should be doable. Finally, I feel capable of learning data science and AI with Python when the time comes. Many talks showed how machine learning can solve novel problems with straightforward tools and techniques.
That should conclude this panda’s round of conferences for the year. I look forward to what 2019 brings!
PyTexas 2019 was an incredible Python conference. It was held at the Central Library in Austin, Texas from April 13-14. I’m so glad I went. Even though this was my seventh Python conference, it was one of my favorites so far. Here’s a brief recap of my experiences.
Why I Went
I consider myself very fortunate to have been able to go to PyTexas 2019. After my talk proposals for PyCon 2019 were rejected, I saw this tweet from Dustin Ingram, the conference chair for PyTexas:
Thankfully, my talk was the very second talk of the conference. I could get it out of the way early so I could enjoy the rest of the conference without the nerves. And everyone always loves the pandas.
I also gave a Lightning Talk for the first time! I talked about the difference between unittest and pytest. My talk starts at 30:17, but be sure to listen to all of the talks.
I’d also like to thank my employer, PrecisionLender, for sponsoring my trip and enabling me to speak.
Talks are usually the main part of any conference. PyTexas 2019 was a single-track conference, meaning that everyone saw all of the talks. All talks were memorable for me, but I’ll write a separate post about the talks once all the recordings are posted. Here, I’ll cover other awesome things that happened.
My Recovery Day
Things had been very stressful for me in the first few months of 2019. I came to PyTexas essentially exhausted from life, and I needed a “Self Care Sprint” (as Kojo would say). So, that’s exactly what I did: I flew into Austin on Friday morning and spent the whole afternoon just being a low-key tourist. I ate a Texas-sized lunch at Stubb’s BBQ, viewed the artwork at Mexic-Arte Museum, walked along the Colorado River, and nearly fell asleep in the Central Library after perusing the stacks. That evening, I met up with other speakers at the Spider House for an informal pre-conference get-together. Even though I wasn’t “productive” by any professional definition, I felt thoroughly refreshed and ready for the excitement to come.
Austin has been invaded by electric scooters. They are on every street corner. There must be half a dozen different brands. Even Uber and Lyft have scooters for rent! Instead of hailing ride shares downtown, I just hopped the nearest Lime scooter. They go really fast, and they’re tons of fun!
The First After-Party
Literati Books generously hosted an after-party at Jo’s Coffee after the first day of the conference. I got to spend time with a bunch of cool people from the conference while enjoying sliders and craft beer. Carl even shared some of his jerky with us!
Other Testing Talks
I always get a rise out of testing talks at conferences. Python conferences always have a few but only a few. PyTexas had three. I think Kojo‘s tweets summed up my enthusiasm perfectly:
The Zen of Python Teams
Adrienne delivered one of the best keynote addresses I’ve ever attended. Seriously, go watch it. She talked about how the Zen of Python can be applied not only to code but also to teams. The best part was the “Easter egg” at the end. The Zen of Python famously leaves the 20th line blank so that we can make it for ourselves. Adrienne challenged us to come up with our own 20th point after handing out real Easter eggs to everyone in the audience! Mine? People matter.
I had never eaten at Whataburger before. This trip, that changed. William, Brian, and I hopped on those electric scooters and went to the Whataburger across the river for lunch on day 2. The patty melt was tasty, but the Dr. Pepper milkshake was out of this world! The views from the bridge were gorgeous as well.
The Second After-Party
After the conference ended, William, Aly, and I went to Mort Subite, a cool Belgian beer bar, to celebrate and unwind. Then, we rode electric scooters over to Baton Creole for a late-night dinner with Adrienne. We had some good food and even better discussions. It was the best way to end PyTexas!
PyTexas was the first conference where I felt like I fully belonged from day one. Every previous conference was a bit of a shot in the dark for me because I was still new to the Python community. PyTexas 2019 felt almost like a reunion. I strengthened existing friendships and made new ones: Adrienne, Kojo, Dustin, Ernest, Aly, William, Piper, Andy, Carl, Mason, Michael, Brian, and so many more. I also felt like I made a bigger impact at PyTexas than at other conferences because I genuinely felt like part of the community.
We should never take conferences (or any moments) for granted. Truly wonderful things happened at PyTexas. I felt creative. I felt inspired. I felt challenged by new ideas. I felt the itch to try new things. I left on a post-conference high and, surprisingly, I wasn’t particularly tired. The organizers did a phenomenal job running the conference smoothly and successfully. Seriously, hats off to them – many thanks for a job well done. As attendees, we should be grateful for all the hard work so many people did for the conference, and we should capitalize on what we take away from the conference.
Single-track and multi-track yield two very different conference experiences. PyTexas 2019 was my second single-track conference and my first one for a Python conference. Overall, I think the single-track format worked very well. Putting everyone on the same track in the same room builds a strong sense of camaraderie. It also gives speakers a much more prominent platform. However, multi-track provides more choices for attendees, and it gives more people the opportunity to speak. Both are good. I think it would be cool if future conferences do both: maybe one day for single-track and another day for multi-track.
I’m going to (attempt to) develop a new Python package. For a while, I’ve wanted to implement a particular testing pattern in a Pythonic way. My goal is to develop and release it to PyPI as an open-source package. I never had the time or clarity to do it until now. PyTexas gave me a huge boost, and I hope I can carry my vision through to delivery!
People matter. The Python community is a truly wonderful group. People come for the language and stay for the community – it’s true. PyTexas 2019 has challenged me to be a better person and to help people through software.
Test automation is the cornerstone for continuous software delivery pipelines. Automation repeatedly hits new features with a barrage of tests that could never be completed manually in time. From my experiences, though, test automation code can be some of the worst code in the software industry. Teams frequently overlook its importance, its workload size, and its unique technical challenges. The resulting code can become a heapin’ mess! You might even call it “bankrupt.”
In this situation, should a team give up on their current test automation solution and just start over from scratch? Maybe, but maybe not. Don’t be quick to nuke everything and start over! No project is perfect, and some can be recovered. Starting a whole new test automation solution is not a light decision.
Here are a few problems that should be addressed within the existing test automation solution instead of starting over:
Tests don’t add value? That’s easy to fix: just remove the low-value tests. The framework is separate from the test cases.
Tests are flaky? Find the root cause. Typically, flaky tests can be fixed with small updated to the test case or to an aspect of the framework. If the feature under test itself is flaky, then fix the feature or consider testing it manually instead of with automation.
The original authors are gone? Figure out their code before writing your own. Their code might be good once you understand it.
The team uses poor practices? Fix the practices before fixing the code. Otherwise, the new code won’t be any better than the old code.
Signs to Consider
Nevertheless, there are times when a team should start over. Look for these signs, and proceed thoughtfully.
The test frameworks and packages are deprecated. Although the tests may run today, they may not run tomorrow. Finding others to work on it will be difficult, too. For example, nose was once the Python framework of choice, but now it’s dead. Pick a more modern framework. Hopefully, parts of the old tests can be salvaged.
Test case independence is systemically violated. Each test case must be independent. It should not depend upon the outputs of any other tests. It should not interrupt any other tests. The litmus tests for independence is that tests should be able to run successfully in any random order. Interdependent tests are not scalable, difficult for reruns, and potentially dangerous. The only way to fix them is to completely rewrite them.
There is no separation between unit tests and feature tests. White-box unit tests cover code, whereas black-box feature tests cover live features. They occupy different Testing Pyramid layers and should happen at different stages in a CI/CD pipeline. An automation solution with no separation between these types of tests reveals a lack of planning and strategy, and continuous testing will be much tougher to achieve.
The framework lacks cohesive architecture, designs, and patterns. Good solutions are designed, not hacked. Designs scale. Hacks don’t. Building new tests on a shaky platform will yield shaky tests.
Critical fixes would require a majority of tests to be rewritten. Some issues are pervasive, especially when code is repeatedly duplicated. If framework problems are so widespread that tests would need to be rewritten anyway, then it might be easier to start fresh with a new solution.
The Nuclear Option
If you feel like you really do need to start a new test automation solution from scratch, make sure to do it right. You won’t want to redo everything again in a few years! Here’s some advice:
Define your goals. What problems do you want to solve? How can testing and automation help? What can you reasonably achieve? Are you willing to make necessary changes to achieve these goals?
Treat test automation as a project. Test automation is software and requires the same rules and practices. It takes time and expertise. Make sure to allocate time, money, and resources to its development and execution.
Learn how to develop test automation well. It’s not “just writing scripts” – it’s a special domain. Take courses from Test Automation University. Read more Automation Panda articles. Attend webinars and conferences. Seek consulting help if necessary.
Draw a line in the sand between the old and new solutions. Commit to writing all new tests in the new solution. Meanwhile, continue to run tests from the old solution as appropriate – there’s no need to axe its test coverage. Decide if migrating old tests to the new solution is worthwhile for your team. This could also be an opportunity to clean up old tests and cut out low-value areas.
Starting a new test solution is a lot of work, but it can also be rewarding. Good luck!
Sharing steps between feature files can be a bit of a hassle.
pytest-bdd is a plugin for pytest that lets users write tests as Gherkin feature files rather than test functions. Because it integrates with pytest, it can work with any other pytest plugins, such as pytest-html for pretty reports and pytest-xdist for parallel testing. It also uses pytest fixtures for dependency injection.
Step definition modules must have explicit declarations for feature files (via “@scenario” or the “scenarios” function).
Scenario outline steps must be parsed differently.
radish is a BDD framework with a twist: it adds new syntax to the Gherkin language. Language features like scenario loops, scenario preconditions, and constants make radish‘s Gherkin variant more programmatic for test cases.
It lacks the feature richness of the other frameworks.
It doesn’t appear to have much active, ongoing support.
freshen was one of the first BDD test frameworks for Python. It was a plugin for nose. However, both freshen and nose are no longer maintained, and their doc pages explicitly tell readers to use other frameworks.
None of these frameworks are perfect, but some have clear advantages. Overall, my top recommendation is pytest-bdd because it benefits from the strengths of pytest. I believe pytest is one of the best test frameworks in any language because of its conciseness, fixtures, assertions, and plugins. The 2018 Python Developers Survey showed that pytest is, by far, the most popular Python test framework, too. Even though pytest-bdd doesn’t feel as polished as behave, I think some TLC from the open source community could fix that.
Here are other recommendations:
Use behave if you want a robust, clean experience with the largest community.
Use pytest-bdd if you need to integrate with other plugins, already have a bunch of pytest tests, or want to run tests in parallel.
Use radish if you want more programmatic control of testing at the Gherkin layer.
On March 18, 2019, I gave a webinar entitled, “What is Behavior-Driven Development, and How Do We Practice It?” in collaboration with Paul Merrill and his company, Beaufort Fairmont. It was both a pleasure and an honor to do this webinar with them. Paul is a top-notch test automation expert, and Beaufort Fairmont is doing really exciting things. Check out their two-day BDD training offering, as well as their blog and other webinars.
During the webinar, attendees asked more questions than we could answer. I’m excited that so many people asked questions. My answers are below.
Questions about Process
How is BDD different from TDD (Test-Driven Development)?
BDD is an evolution of TDD. In TDD, developers (1) write unit tests and watch them fail, (2) develop the feature to make the tests pass, (3) refactor the code to make it stronger, and (4) repeat the cycle. In BDD, teams do this same loop with feature tests (a.k.a “acceptance” or “black-box” tests) as well as unit tests. Furthermore, BDD adds shift left practices like Example Mapping and Specification by Example so that teams know what they are doing and focus on developing the right things.
Check out Dan North’s article, Introducing BDD, for a more thorough answer.
Can BDD be used with manual testing?
Yes! BDD is not merely an automation tool – it is a set of pragmatic practices to help teams develop better software. Gherkin scenarios are first and foremost behavior specs that help a team’s collaboration and accountability. They function secondarily as test cases that can be executed either manually or with automation.
Can we use BDD with technical stories or backend features?
Yes! If you can describe it, then you can do it.
How many Gherkin scenarios should one story have?
There’s no hard rule, but I recommend no more than a handful of rules per story, and no more than a handful of examples per rule. If you do Example Mapping and feel overwhelmed by the number of cards for a story, then the story should probably be broken into smaller stories.
Should we do Example Mapping for every story? Spending 20-30 minutes for each story would take a long time.
Try doing Example Mapping on one or two stories to start. The first time is always rough, but as you iterate on it, you’ll get better as a team. Even though Example Mapping has an upfront time cost, it will save a lot of time later in the sprint because (a) acceptance criteria is clear, (b) tests are already written, and (c) everyone has a mutual understanding of the story. The team won’t suffer through the inefficiencies of miscommunication and poor planning. You may even want to replace planning meeting with Example Mapping meetings.
What metrics should we use with BDD?
All metrics are flawed, but some metrics are useful. All the standard testing and Agile metrics still apply: code coverage, story velocity, etc. Here are some additional metrics you may consider for BDD:
the percentage of stories that undergo Example Mapping before the sprint
the number of rules and examples that get “missed” during Example Mapping and need to be added later
the percentage of Gherkin scenarios that get automated in the sprint
If you choose to track metrics, make sure their feedback is used to improve team practices. For more info on metrics, please read my Quality Metrics 101 series.
What were the resources you recommended at the end of the webinar?
What test management tools should we use with BDD?
I’m sure there are BDD plugins for test management tools, but I don’t have any that I can personally recommend. To be honest, I try to stay away from large test management tools like HP ALM, qTest, VersionOne. When doing BDD, the Gherkin feature files themselves should be the single source of truth for feature-level tests, and they should be version-controlled in a repository. Don’t fall into the trap of slapping “Given-When-Then” keywords onto existing functional tests – that’s not BDD.
Does Jira support Example Mapping?
I have not personally used any Jira plugin for Example Mapping. It looks like there is an Easy Agile User Story Maps plugin that is similar to but slightly different from Example Mapping.
Are there other good tools for BDD and Example Mapping?
Cycle Automation provides a nice app with Gherkin steps out of the box, so you can automate tests without needing a programming language.
Scenarios should be bite-sized. Each scenario should focus on one individual behavior. There’s no hard rule, but I recommend single-digit step counts. Read BDD 101: Writing Good Gherkin for more info.
What are “step definitions” in Cucumber?
Step definitions are the methods in the automation code that execute the steps. When a BDD framework runs a Gherkin scenario as a test, it “glues” each step to a step definition based on some sort of string matching.
How can we minimize duplicate code within a BDD test framework?
Know your steps. Always search for existing steps before writing new steps. Refactor existing steps whenever appropriate. Reuse steps when writing new scenarios. Do pair programming or mob programming when writing scenarios. Put scenarios through code reviews. Apply good coding practices – remember, test automation is software.
I write Gherkin scenarios, but I don’t write test automation code. What’s the best way to write Gherkin scenarios so that they can be automated?
Do pair programming with the automation engineers to write Gherkin scenarios together. Become familiar with existing steps by reading and searching feature files. Otherwise, the Gherkin steps you write in isolation might not be usable. Remember, BDD is a team effort!
The examples in the webinar were all fairly basic. Do you have any examples with more complex systems?
I have some example projects on GitHub in Python and Java with some basic unit, integration, and end-to-end tests, but I don’t have any large-scale examples that I can share publicly.
We wrote hundreds of SpecFlow tests without the other Amigos. Now, there are large test gaps, and many steps aren’t reusable. What should we do?
I’m sorry to hear that. It’s not an uncommon story. There are two paths: (1) refactoring or (2) starting over. Without really knowing the situation, I don’t think it’s my place to say which way is better. Here are some questions to help guide your decision:
What are your goals for testing and automation?
What’s your overall quality and testing strategy?
What parts of the code base are salvageable?
What parts of the code base should be removed?
If you started again from scratch, what would you do differently to make sure the same problems don’t reoccur?
PyCaribbean was held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic from February 16-17, 2019. I was blessed with the opportunity to deliver not just one talk but two at the conference! Typically, I write lengthy chronological reflections of my conference experiences, but this time, I’m going to share my big takeaways.
Python has GREAT people.
Python is truly just as much about the community as it is about the language, and conferences are one of the best ways to become part of that community. Everyone at PyCaribbean was excited to learn, grow, and be inspired. Here’s a short list of Twitter handles for some of the awesome folks who made a direct impact on me at the conference:
There were many others, too. I felt like I really got to connect with these folks, not just meet them in passing.
The Dominican Republic has GREAT people.
First of all, many thanks to Leonardo Jimenez for organizing the conference! He did so much not only to bring together an excellent program of speakers and events, but he also got the support of the local software community and even the government in the DR.
PyCaribbean really showed the best of the software world in the DR. Everyone there was hungry to learn and share. I had no idea how vibrant the software industry was becoming there, too. There’s a bright future ahead.
Don’t wait to make proposals to conferences.
I consider myself especially fortunate to have attended PyCaribbean because I almost didn’t get to go. I submitted my talk proposals one night on a whim after seeing the PyCaribbean Twitter handle appear on my feed. After submitting two talks, my third one got blocked with a message saying submissions had been closed. Had I delayed a few minutes, I would have been too late!
Join the PSF.
The Python Software Foundation (PSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit corporation that holds the intellectual property rights behind the Python programming language.
The PSF does awesome things for the community, such as running PyCon. Anyone can become a member, too! There are different membership classes for varying levels of involvement. Lorena Mesa, one of the PSF Directors, encouraged me to join during the conference. If you care about Python, then I encourage you to join as well!
Beach trips are fun.
The day after the conference ended, a bunch of us (mostly speakers) took a day trip to Be Live Collection Canoa at Bayahibe. This was my first time at an all-inclusive beach resort. The water was a clear light blue, and the sand was white. Mixed drinks and Presidente beers were unlimited – you could even order them from a bar in the swimming pool! The buffet lunch was also on point. Plus, the trip offered the perfect chance to get to know the others on a deeper level. I almost didn’t get to go, but thankfully Delta rearranged my flights due to weather delays and gave me an extra day in the DR. I needed that day at the beach to just be me, but relaxed. #WorthIt
Music brings people together.
One of the conference highlights was the electric violin performance on day 2. I don’t know the name of the musician, but he shredded it! He played “Wake Me Up” by Avicii, “Uptown Funk” by Bruno Mars, and “Corazon Espinado” by Santana. As I sat in the auditorium listening with the others, I just thought to myself, “This is really nice. This is a once-in-a-life performance for incredible renditions of these three awesome songs.” Everyone else there seemed to agree with me.
Passionfruit is delicious.
I ate passionfruit for the first time in my life in the DR. It was delicious. The edible flesh of the fruit is basically a gooey collection of black seeds in a yellow mucus. It tastes tart but slightly sweet. I normally don’t eat breakfast, but I devoured about four halves on the morning I first discovered them. They had them at the beach resort buffet, too!
I need to stick up for myself.
During my trip, it was very obvious that I was a tourist – a white American who spoke no Spanish and wandered around just to look at things. Unfortunately, because of that, some people tried to take advantage of me. I was clearly overcharged for my souvenirs, even after attempting to haggle. A guard at Independence Park took my phone to take pictures of me and then demanded money. On my return flight, a guy sat in my seat on the plane and refused to yield it to me.
These experiences really frustrated me. I’ve always been somewhat shy in social circumstances, and that leaves me vulnerable to others who would take advantage of me. Reflecting on how I handled these situations has made me determined to be more assertive. I won’t become a jerk, but I don’t need to be afraid to stick up for myself. I should use my inner strength and discernment instead of folding.
The world is a fallen place.
One thing truly broke my heart during my trip: I’m 99% sure I witnessed prostitution on multiple occasions. I won’t go into details, but it was shocking to me. Call me naïve. Let’s work to make a better world where this sort of thing doesn’t need to happen.
I know so little.
My PyCaribbean trip was challenging but rewarding. It was my first time visiting the Caribbean and Latin America. Not only did I gain some software experience, but I also gained some life experience. I’m thankful I got to go and that all the details fell perfectly into place. Hopefully, I’ll get to return to learn even more!